How does globalization affect human rights?

Global terrorism is the major challenge when it comes to the implementation of Human rights laws in the international community. Global terror has been used for gaining social power and initiating change to achieve specific objectives by intimidating the people. States must have an obligation to protect human beings from the threats of terrorism. It’s the basic right of human beings and the international organization should come up with a restrained definition of global terrorism.

Human right involves protection and respect for civil, cultural, economic and political rights. It is a universal right. We can see the reflection of International human rights in various customary and international human rights law. Article 55 of the United Nations Charter gives universal respect for human rights and fundamental freedom for everyone without discriminating against based on the basis of race, sex, language, or religion. But to achieve this level of human rights application in the global community, all the states should bind together and follow the customary international law. On the other hand, terrorism is an abstract idea and a remorseful issue in the le both in the domestic and international legal platform. It prospers in a state where there is widespread poverty, humiliation, various kind of abuses and violation of human rights. There are many terrorist organizations like ISIS, Al-Qaida that operate globally and spreading terrorism in the various member states of the UN. Their action includes gross violation of human rights and the use of intimidation, threat, and force. There are various types of terrorism such as-

Religious terrorism –  In this type of terrorism, The spiritual and orthodox groups adopt terrorism as a way to implement their beliefs.

Pathological terrorism – In this type of terrorism, the action involves the execution of the real terror with the use of a disastrous mission. Examples are suicide bombing and serial bomb blasts.

Separatist terrorism – In this type of terrorism, State from a group or party having separatist objectives such as making their own independent state with the use of extreme political means. Examples are ETA, IRA, etc.

Political extremist terrorism – In this of terrorism, fear and terror are used as a mode by the right-wing, left-wing or revolutionary terrorism to create fear in the citizens related to that particular political party.

Terrorism for single issues – It focuses on unique agendas such as abortions, deforestations, etc.

So, it’s obvious that the ultimate aim of global terrorism is to create terror in the mind of citizens to achieve economic, political, religious, motives by using brutal methods of mass destruction. According to the global terrorism index, India is on 8th rank while Iraq is on the 1st rank.  The increase in the number of terrorist attacks has affected the general human rights of the people living in those affected reasons. There are mainly two global terrorist organization, ISIS and Boko Haram. ISIS is most active in Syria, Libya, Iraq, Tunisia, Egypt, and Afghanistan. It uses brutal methods to impose its violent religious ideology to control and disallow secularity and targets those sections who defies it. It is the most influential body among all the other terrorist groups.  It has done terrorist attacks in France, Germany, Belgium, and The USA. Boko Haram is another extremist group in Nigeria which came in 2003. This terrorist organization never attacks randomly but it attacks only politicians, Christians and non- believer of their ideology.  Their ideology is based on a word called “Hausa” which means western education is forbidden. In the year 2015, it guaranteed its loyalty to ISIS and as a result of it,  the same year, it was declared as the most dangerous extremist terrorist organization.

Article 6 of the ICCPR protects the right to life under international law, not only for the member states but also for all the people in this world. This makes all the terrorist organization to comply with it. Terrorist organizations have a powerful impact on the human rights of the people of their regions.  There is a strong and clear connection between global terrorism and violations of International Human rights. It is a challenge for the international community to protect the fundamental freedom and human rights while dealing with extremists groups and terrorism.  Terror organizations like ISIS and Boko Haram focus on destroying the basic human rights of the individuals and destroy the regular social order of the region.  The anti-terrorism measures have been covered by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council.  It has adopted various international protocols and conventions for combating terrorism.  In 1993, the UN Vienna Declaration declared that – “The acts, methods, and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking, are activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental freedoms and democracy, threatening the territorial integrity, the security of States and destabilizing legitimately constituted Governments. The international community should take the necessary steps to enhance cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism.”

The international bodies have not been efficient enough to eliminate terrorism. It has given measures to follow the international human rights but it has been very ineffective to give practical solutions for maintaining Human rights in the war-affected and terrorist prone areas.  Terrorism is a vast topic and there are lots of minor and major issues when the states try to combat it. That can be the reason to not have a standard global definition of  Terrorism. But the lack of proper definition and stringent rules are making the work of these terrorist organizations very easy.

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